by Dr. Lisa A. Price

This is the first in a series of articles on brain health. We will explore normal brain aging, ways to protect and maintain a healthy brain at any age, ways to support brain health during chronic illness, and prevention of brain related disorders and neuro inflammation. 

Maintaining brain health is crucial to overall well-being and cognitive function at any age. Many factors including stress, lifestyle, medication and nutrient status can affect how our brain health and thus function. Individual needs vary and it’s important to consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice. 

It is important to gain an understanding of what is normal regarding brain function and aging. The aging process affects the brain in various ways, and while some changes are a normal part of aging and differ between individuals, others may be associated with diseases or lifestyle factors. 

As the brain ages there are some normal structural changes that occur. Let’s review them. 

  • Gray matter begins to reduce: as people age, there is a general reduction in gray matter volume, which includes neurons and synapses. This reduction is most pronounced in areas associated with learning and memory. 
  • White matter changes: the integrity of white matter, which consists of nerve fibers and their protective myelin sheaths,  may decline. This can affect the speed and efficiency of communication between different regions of the brain. 
  • Neuronal loss: While some neuron loss is a natural part of aging, excessive neuronal loss can contribute to cognitive decline.
  • Synaptic changes: synapses, the connections between neurons, may weaken or be lost. This impacts communication between neurons. 
  • Neurotransmitter changes: levels of certain neurotransmitters may change. For example, dopamine, which is important for movement and reward, may decline with age. 
  • Blood Flow and Oxygenation: reduced blood flow can be associated with aging. This can impact oxygen and nutrient delivery. As well, the small blood vessels in the brain may undergo changes that can affect overall vascular health. 
  • Inflammation: chronic inflammation may increase aging processes and contribute to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
  • Genetic Factors: genetics do play a role in how our brains age. Some people are more predisposed to age related cognitive decline or neurodegenerative diseases. 
  • Hormones: changes in hormonal levels, such as estrogen, can also impact brain function
  • Lifestyle and Environmental Factors: Factors such as diet, and exercise can influence the rate of cognitive decline. Prolonged exposure to environmental factors such as toxins and pollutants may contribute to aging-related changes in the brain. A healthy lifestyle can contribute to maintaining cognitive function as you age. 

How can we preserve brain health generally?

Preserving brain health is crucial for maintaining cognitive function, preventing cognitive decline, and promoting overall well-being. Here are some lifestyle strategies and habits that can contribute to preserving and promoting brain health:

  • Healthy Diet: consume a balanced diet rich in antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and vitamins
  • Regular physical exercise: engage in regular aerobic exercise which has been linked to improved cognitive function and neuroplasticity. 
  • Adequate sleep: prioritize sufficient and quality sleep. Sleep is essential for memory consolidation and overall cognitive function. 
  • Mental Stimulation: Keep your brain active through learning new skills, engaging in puzzles, reading regularly, participating in intellectually stimulating activities. 
  • Stress Management: practice stress-reduction techniques.
  • Social Engagement: maintain social connections and engage in meaningful conversations. 
  • Brain-Boosting Nutrients: Ensure you’re getting essential nutrients.
  • Limit Alcohol and Avoid Smoking: excessive alcohol consumption and smoking can have negative effects on brain health. 
  • Stay Hydrated: drink enough water to ensure proper hydration. 

In our subsequent articles we’ll dive deeper in how anxiety and stress affect brain health. See you soon!